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Particle’s Frequency

In the CIPA model, a particle is actually traveling along a wave, which is a geodetic trajectory in space-time. The frequency of particles depends on its energy. “The waves are fact ripples in space-time. These waves do carry energy, and each wave has a specific direction, frequency and polarization state. This is called a ‘propagating mode of the electromagnetic field’” (Calphysics Institute n.d.[c]).

In this model the waves are already present. Depending on its energy, a particle that gets involved in any specific wave obtains a specific frequency. The frequency identifies the nature of the particle. This is the way that particles get their identification. Authors Bernard Haisch, Alfonso Rueda, L. J. Nickisch, and Jules Mollere postulate, “Zero-point fluctuations give rise to space-time micro-curvature effects yielding a complementary perspective on the origin of inertia. Numerical simulations of this effect demonstrate the manner in which a mass-less fundamental particle, e.g. an electron, acquires inertial properties” (Haisch et al. 2002).

One may ask why there are just three main stable fermions (up quark, down quark, and electron) and a handful of unstable particles. Why are the masses of proton and neutron not proportionate to their constituents, whereas the mass of bigger objects is incremental? Here is what CIPA researchers believe: “The quantum vacuum inertia hypothesis strongly suggests that the interaction between the quantum vacuum and charged fundamental particles (quarks and electrons) takes place at specific frequencies or resonance” (Calphysics Institute n.d.[d]).

Gravity in the Quantum Vacuum Inertia Hypothesis (QVIH)

We are constantly subject to the force of gravity. However, the nature and dynamics of gravity is not well understood. Mainstream physics classifies gravity as one of the four main forces of nature (along with the electromagnetic force and the strong and weak nuclear forces). Uphill efforts to unify gravity with three other forces (the grand unified theory) has not been fruitful so far.

H. E. Puthoff, one of the researchers of CIPA, describes the nature of gravity from the QVIH standpoint:

Taking a completely different track … the well-known Russian physicist Andrei Sakharov put forward the somewhat radical hypothesis that gravitation might not be a fundamental interaction at all, but rather a secondary or residual effect associated with other (non- gravitational) fields. Specifically, Sakharov suggested that gravity might be an induced effect brought about by changes in the zero-point energy of the vacuum, due to the presence of matter. If correct, gravity would then be understood as a variation on the Casimir theme, in which background zero-point-energy pressures were again responsible. Although Sakharov did not develop the concept much further, he did outline certain criteria such a theory would have to meet such as predicting the value of the gravitational constant G in terms of zero-point-energy parameters. (Puthoff n.d.)

CIPA researchers followed the lead established above and developed it further. Their efforts provided the following positive results.

The gravitational interaction is shown to begin with the fact that a particle situated in the sea of electromagnetic zero-point fluctuations develops a “jitter” motion, or ZITTERBEWEGUNG as it is called. When there are two or more particles, they are each influenced not only by the fluctuating background field, but also by the fields generated by the other particles, all similarly undergoing ZITTERBEWEGUNG motion, and the inter-particle coupling due to these fields’ results in the attractive gravitational force.

Gravity can thus be understood as a kind of long-range Casimir force. Because of its electromagnetic underpinning, gravitational theory in this form constitutes what is known in the literature as an “already-unified” theory. The major benefit of the new approach is that it provides a basis for understanding various characteristics of the gravitational interaction hitherto unexplained. These include the relative weakness of the gravitational force under ordinary circumstances (shown to be due to the fact that the coupling constant G depends inversely on the large value of the high-frequency cutoff of the zero-point-fluctuation spectrum); the existence of positive but not negative mass (traceable to a positive-only kinetic-energy basis for the mass parameter); and the fact that gravity cannot be shielded (a consequence of the fact that quantum zero-point-fluctuation “noise” in general cannot be shielded, a factor which in other contexts sets a lower limit on the detectability of electromagnetic signals) (Puthoff n.d.).

The CIPA provide the following conjecture for the nature of gravitational force between two objects:

The secondary electromagnetic fields turn out to have a remarkable property. Between any two particles they give rise to an attractive force. The force is much weaker than the ordinary attractive or repulsive forces between two stationary electric charges, and it is always attractive, whether the charges are positive or negative. The result is that the secondary fields give rise to an attractive force we propose may be identified with gravity. (Haische et al. 1994)

The CIPA researchers believe that inertial and gravitational mass are the exact same thing. Inertia is felt as an object accelerates through the electromagnetic quantum vacuum. The gravitation is actually acceleration of the electromagnetic quantum vacuum past a fixed object:

“The latter case occurs when an object is held fixed in a gravitational field and the quantum vacuum radiation associated with the freely-falling frame instantaneously co-moving with the object follows curved geodesics as prescribed by general relativity.” (Rueda and Haische 2005)

For a detailed and updated description of quantum vacuum inertia hypothesis, please see Rueda and Haische 2005.

ZPE in this Model

There are similarities between what I am going to present here and the CIPA model, because in both models ZPE is the origin for mass. However, we need to address the shortcomings accompanying the ZPE model, namely the absence of effect on gravitation and other existing force fields. in our model, the origin of the ZPE is esoteric (external), while it can be considered the origin of force fields or matter particles, which are intrinsic to the universe. Therefore, there will be some fundamental differences. If we take ZPE as being out of space time and accept it as a property of proposed singularity, then it can provide answers to the above fundamental questions. The above shortcomings can only be removed if ZPE is inherently esoteric to the space-time universe. An external energy field does not have to affect internal fields. Although, the conjecture is that force fields inside universe are originated from ZPE. Besides, if ZPE is esoteric it will not show enormous gravitational effect which is in line with observation.

   
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